And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the
children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim
and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing
out of the land of Egypt.
And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against
Moses and Aaron in the wilderness:
And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the
hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and
when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this
wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.
(16:1-3) The Israelites complain to Moses and Aaron about the lack of food.
Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for
you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I
may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.
And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that
which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.
And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye
shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt:
And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he
heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur
(16:4-5) God tells Moses that he will rain bread from heaven.
And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening
flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD
heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your
murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.
And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children
of Israel, Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard your murmurings.
(16:8-9) When the people complain to Moses, he tells them they aren't complaining
about him, but about God, making them apostates and heretics, and therefore deserve severe punishment.
Religious leaders have used this tactic ever since.
(16:8) Your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.
And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the
children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the
glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them,
saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled
with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God.
(16:10-12) The glory of the Lord appears in a cloud, promising
to send lots of food (quails and manna) from the sky.
(16:10) Behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
(16:11-12) And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel:
speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled.
And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the
camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.
And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the
wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the
And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is
manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the
bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.
This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it every man
according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of
your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents.
And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less.
And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing
over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man
according to his eating.
(16:13) The next evening quails covered the camp and in the morning a bread-like dew was on the ground.
"The manna referred to in the Bible, in Exodus 16:14, seems to have been
the dried excrement of Trabutina mannipara, a scale insect that feeds
on tamarisk trees." Benjamin B. Normark, The
Sex Lives of Scales, Natural History, Sept. 2004.
(16:14) When the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing,
as small as the hoar frost on the ground.
(16.15) Manna ... This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.
(16:16-22) Moses told the people not to leave it until morning. (But some did and it bred worms and stank.)
And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning.
Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it
until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with
And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and
when the sun waxed hot, it melted.
And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much
bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came
and told Moses.
And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, To morrow is
the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake to
day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up
for you to be kept until the morning.
(16:23) Moses told them that God said not to gather the bread on the Sabbath.
And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not stink,
neither was there any worm therein.
And Moses said, Eat that to day; for to day is a sabbath unto the LORD: to
day ye shall not find it in the field.
Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath,
in it there shall be none.
and told Moses.
(16:24-26) The people did as Moses said and the bread didn't stink or have any worms in it.
And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh
day for to gather, and they found none.
(16:27) Some of the people gathered on the Sabbath.
And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments
and my laws?
See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the
bread of two days; abideye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh
(16:28-29) God said to Moses, "How long will you ignore my commandments?"
So the people rested on the seventh day.
And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like
coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.
And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commandeth, Fill an omer
of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith
I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of
And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an omer full of manna
therein, and lay it up before the LORD, to be kept for your generations.
As the LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to
(16:30-34) So the people stopped gathering on the Sabbath.
And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a
land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the
land of Canaan.
Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.
(16:35-36) The children of Israel ate manna for forty years.
(It took the Israelites 40 years to travel from Egypt to Canaan, yet such a journey, even at that time,
would have taken no more than a few weeks.)