1 Samuel 20
Jonathan and David
And David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan,
What have I done? what is mine iniquity? and what is my sin before thy
father, that he seeketh my life?
And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father
will do nothing either great or small, but that he will shew it me: and why
should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so. ||
(20:3-16) The special relationship between Jonathan and David.
(20:3) "Thy father certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes."
(20:4) "Then said Jonathan unto David, Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee."
And David sware moreover, and said, Thy father certainly knoweth that I
have found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, Let not Jonathan know this,
lest he be grieved: but truly as the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth,
there is but a step between me and death.
Then said Jonathan unto David, Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even
do it for thee.
And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I
should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide
myself in the field unto the third day at even.||
If thy father at all miss me, then say, David earnestly asked leave of me
that he might run to Bethlehem his city: for there is a yearly sacrifice
there for all the family.||
If he say thus, It is well; thy servant shall have peace: but if he be
very wroth, then be sure that evil is determined by him.||
Therefore thou shalt deal kindly with thy servant; for thou hast brought
thy servant into a covenant of the LORD with thee: notwithstanding, if there
be in me iniquity, slay me thyself; for why shouldest thou bring me to thy
And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee: for if I knew certainly that evil
were determined by my father to come upon thee, then would not I tell it
Then said David to Jonathan, Who shall tell me? or what if thy father
answer thee roughly?||
And Jonathan said unto David, Come, and let us go out into the field. And
they went out both of them into the field.||
(20:11) "And Jonathan said unto David, Come, and let us go out into the field. And
they went out both of them into the field."
And Jonathan said unto David, O LORD God of Israel, when I have sounded my
father about to morrow any time, or the third day, and, behold, if there be
good toward David, and I then send not unto thee, and shew it thee;||
The LORD do so and much more to Jonathan: but if it please my father to do
thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send thee away, that thou mayest go
in peace: and the LORD be with thee, as he hath been with my father.||
And thou shalt not only while yet I live shew me the kindness of the LORD,
that I die not:||
(20:15-16) God will wipe all of David's enemies off the face of the earth.
(20:15) "When the LORD hath cut off the enemies of David every one from the face
of the earth."
(20:16) "Let the LORD even require it at the hand of David's enemies."
But also thou shalt not cut off thy kindness from my house for ever: no,
not when the LORD hath cut off the enemies of David every one from the face
of the earth.
So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, Let the LORD
even require it at the hand of David's enemies.||
And Jonathan caused David to swear again, because he loved him: for he
loved him as he loved his own soul.||
(20:16) "And Jonathan caused David to swear again, because he loved him: for he
loved him as he loved his own soul."
Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be
missed, because thy seat will be empty.||
And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and
come to the place where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in
hand, and shalt remain by the stone Ezel.||
(20:20-22, 35-39) Jonathan's fortune-telling arrow shots.|
Jonathan shoots three arrows and then sends a boy to fetch them. If the arrows go farther than the boy ran, then God will send David away. The
arrows went over the boys head, so God forced David and Jonathan to part.
(20:20) "I will shoot three arrows."
(20:21) "And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, Go, find out the arrows. If ... the arrows are on this side of thee ... then
... there is peace to thee."
(20:22) "But if ... the arrows are beyond thee; go thy way: for the LORD hath sent thee away."
And I will shoot three arrows on the side thereof, as though I shot at a
|20:21 And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, Go, find out the arrows. If I
expressly say unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on this side of thee,
take them; then come thou: for there is peace to thee, and no hurt; as the
|20:22 But if I say thus unto the young man, Behold,
the arrows are beyond thee;
go thy way: for the LORD hath sent thee away.
And as touching the matter which thou and I have spoken of, behold, the
LORD be between thee and me for ever.||
So David hid himself in the field: and when the new moon was come, the
king sat him down to eat meat.||
And the king sat upon his seat, as at other times, even upon a seat by the
wall: and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul's side, and David's place
Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing that day: for he thought, Something
hath befallen him, he is not clean; surely he is not clean.||
And it came to pass on the morrow, which was the second day of the month,
that David's place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore
cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day?||
David and Jonathan|
La Somme le roy
ca. 1300 CE
And Jonathan answered Saul, David earnestly asked leave of me to go to
And he said, Let me go, I pray thee; for our family hath a sacrifice in
the city; and my brother, he hath commanded me to be there: and now, if I
have found favour in thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and see my
brethren. Therefore he cometh not unto the king's table.
Then Saul's anger was
kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse
rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to
thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness?
(20:30) "Thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion,
and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness."|
Saul is angered by his son's homosexual
affair with David and says, "do not I know that thou has chosen the son of
Jesse to thine own confusion of thy mother's nakedness?"
"Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him."
Saul is a model for Christian parents that discover that they have a homosexual child: try to kill the child and his or her lover.
For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be
established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for
he shall surely die.
And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall
he be slain? what hath he done?
And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it
was determined of his father to slay David.
So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did eat no meat the
second day of the month: for he was grieved for David, because his father
had done him shame.
And it came to pass in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field
at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him.||
(20:35) "Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him."
And he said unto his lad, Run, find out now the arrows which I shoot. And
as the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him.||
(20:36) "And he said unto his lad, Run, find out now the arrows which I shoot. And
as the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him."
And when the lad was come to the place of the arrow which Jonathan had
shot, Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, Is not the arrow beyond thee?||
(20:37) "Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, Is not the arrow beyond thee?"
And Jonathan cried after the lad, Make speed, haste, stay not. And
Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.||
(20:38) "And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows"
(20:39) "But the lad knew not any thing: only Jonathan and David knew the matter."
But the lad knew not any thing: only Jonathan and David knew the matter.||
(20:41) "They kissed one another."|
David and Jonathan "kissed one another,
and wept with one another" when they parted for the last time.
(20:41) "David ... fell on his face."
And they fell on their faces (FOF)
Lovingly Taketh His Leave of David
Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld
And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad, and said unto him, Go, carry
them to the city.
And as soon as the lad
was gone, David arose out of a place toward the south, and fell on his
face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one
another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded.
And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both
of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The LORD be between me and thee, and
between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and
Jonathan went into the city.