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What were the twelve tribes of Israel?

There are six lists of the tribes of Israel. They all disagree somwhat about the names, number, and order of tribes.

Twelve tribes are listed in Genesis 49. Ephraim and Manasseh are not on the list.

And Jacob called unto his sons, ... Reuben ... Simeon and Levi ... Judah ... Zebulun ... Issachar ... Dan ... Gad ... Asher ... Naphtali ... Joseph ... Benjamin.... All these are the twelve tribes of Israel. Genesis 49:1-28
Thirteen are listed in Numbers 1 -- eleven if you leave out Ephraim and Manasseh [Joseph's sons whom Jacob (aka Israel) "adopted"]. Levi is missing from the list.
And with you there shall be a man of every tribe ... Reuben ... Simeon ... Judah ... Issachar ... Zebulun ... Joseph ... (Ephraim) ... (Manasseh) ... Benjamin ... Dan ... Asher ... Gad ... Naphtali. Numbers 1:4-15
The list in Numbers 13 has twelve names, but Levi and Manasseh are missing.
And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Send thou men ... of every tribe ... of the tribe of Reuben ... Simeon ... Judah ... Issachar ... Ephraim ... Benjamin ... Zebulun ... Joseph ... Dan ... Asher ... Naphtali ... Gad. Numbers 13:1-15
Only eleven tribes are listed in Deuteronomy 33, with Simeon, Ephraim, and Manasseh left out.
...the tribes of Israel were gathered together. ... Reuben ... Judah ... Levi ... Benjamin ... Joseph ... Zebulun ... Issachar ... Gad ... Dan ... Naphtali ... Asher.... Deuteronomy 33:5-24
Twelve tribes are listed in Ezekiel 48, with Levi and Joseph left off the list.
Now these are the names of the tribes ... Dan ... Asher ... Naphtali ... Manasseh ... Ephraim ... Reuben ... Judah ... Benjamin ... Simeon ... Issachar ... Zebulun ... Gad.... Ezekiel 48:1-27
Twleve are listed in Revelation 7, which leaves out Dan and Ephraim.
... there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel. Of the tribe of Juda ... Reuben ... Gad ... Aser ... Nephthalim ... Manasses ... Simeon ... Levi ... Issachar ... Zabulon ... Joseph ... Benjamin.... Revelation 7:4-8
In summary, a total of fourteen tribes are found in the six lists. Simeon, Levi, Dan, Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh are on some lists but not on others. Only eight tribes are included on all lists.

Here's a table that compares the six lists.

Genesis 49 Numbers 1 Numbers 13 Deuteronomy 33 Ezekiel 48 Revelation 7
Reuben (1) Reuben (1) Reuben (1) Reuben (1) Reuben (6) Reuben (2)
Simeon (2) Simeon (2) Simeon (2) - Simeon (9) Simeon (7)
Levi (3) - - Levi (3) - Levi (8)
Judah (4) Judah (3) Judah (3) Judah (2) Judah (7) Juda (1)
Zebulun (5) Zebulun (5) Zebulun (7) Zebulun (6) Zebulun (11) Zebulon (10)
Isschar (6) Isschar (4) Isschar (4) Isschar (7) Isschar (10) Isschar (9)
Dan (7) Dan (10) Dan (9) Dan (9) Dan (1) -
Gad (8) Gad (12) Gad (12) Gad (8) Gad (12) Gad (3)
Asher (9) Asher (11) Asher (10) Asher (11) Asher (2) Aser (4)
Nephtali (10) Nephtali (13) Nephtali (11) Nephtali (10) Nephtali (3) Nephtalim (5)
Joseph (11) Joseph (6) Joseph (8) Joseph (5) - Joseph (11)
Benjamin (12) Benjamin (9) Benjamin (6) Benjamin (4) Benjamin (8) Benjamin (12)
- Ephraim (5) Ephraim (5) - Ephraim (5) -
- Manasseh (8) - - Manasseh (4) Manasses (6)



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